Biological markers can be either 1)state or 2)trait markers (endophenotype is type 2)).
It’s in the causal pathway from gene to mental illness diseases.
Ex) neurophysiological, biochemical, endocrinological, neuroanatomical, or neuropsychological.
It helps, 1) target etiology and mechanisms; 2) identify persons who are at increased risk(for appropriate intervention); 3)classifications of clinical phenotypes; 4) differentiate possible biological subtypes,
It lies in the causal pathway (not as a result of the disease), and independent(observed in subjects who are at risk but not currently symptomatic)
Source: Koenen, et al. A life course approach to mental disorders.
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